Researchers uncover earliest tobacco use in the Pacific Northwest
(Phys.org)—Native American hunter-gatherers living more than a thousand years ago in what is now northwestern California ate salmon, acorns and other foods, and now we know they also smoked tobacco—the earliest known usage in the Pacific Northwest, according to a new University of California, Davis, study.
"The study demonstrates that tobacco smoking was part of the northwestern California culture very early ... shortly after the earliest documented Pacific Northwest Coast plank house villages," said the study, published in the 期螺跌停+去产能发布 多空交织下建材市场如何抉择？.
Testing organic residues extracted from pipes, researchers from the UC Davis Department of Anthropology and the Fiehn Metabolomics Laboratory of the UC Davis Genome Center confirmed tobacco was smoked, and likely grown in the region, by at least A.D. 860.
Perhaps more importantly, the researchers say that additional studies may help them better understand the origins of nicotine addiction and the human management, geographic range extension and cultivation of tobacco. Indeed, as part of a second study, the authors have recently detected nicotine in ancient pipes from an 800-year-old site in the modern city of Pleasanton, Calif.
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A major disruption still could push oil higher, but potential oversupply makes even that less likely. Emerging-market demand once kept supply so tight that any disruptions led to striking price moves, said Ole Hansen, head of commodity strategy at Saxo Bank.
According to historical accounts, Richard's body was transported naked and bloody on the back of a pack horse to Leicester before being buried in an unmarked grave at Greyfriars, a Franciscan friary in the central English city.
Prior to this recent testing, which used sensitive gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, researchers were unsure of the historical use of tobacco on the Pacific Northwest Coast. It was unclear, for example, whether European traders had brought tobacco to the area much later, or if some other plant had been smoked in the pipes, Tushingham said.
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The Caixin-Markit manufacturing purchasing managers’ index dipped to 50.8 in November, down from 51 in October and coming closer to the 50-point threshold that delineates expansion from contraction. A median forecast from economists polled by Reuters had predicted a fall to 50.9.
Will Smith had a very successful career in the late 80s and early 90s as the second half of rap duo DJ Jazzy Jeff and the Fresh Prince. But in spite of his financial success, Smith did not manage his money well. It's a pretty classic tale, really. New fame, lots of money, no future plans, and lots of fancy toys added up to a lot of overspending. This lack of oversight and fiscal irresponsibility landed him on the brink of bankruptcy. He owed the government back taxes that he had not paid.
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It is not unusual for the documented wealth of China’s richest people to surge suddenly — or even for previously unknown tycoons to burst into prominence — as stock exchange listings and other public investments thrust them into the spotlight.
Rocco LaDuca, covers crime and courts at the Observer-Dispatch in Utica, New York. He says he became a reporter in part because of fond memories of reading newspapers with his grandmother.
The study is available online.